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Frauenfussball in Deutschland - Framba. They are classed as Category 2 public transport vehicles routes within kilometres. Until , most operated from a Bangkok terminus at Victory Monument.

Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in , according to the World Tourism Organisation. Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent 1 trillion baht to 16 percent.

In , this was supplemented by a "Discover Thainess" campaign. Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity.

Western tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands.

The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains.

The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan in the northeast. To accommodate foreign visitors, the Thai government established a separate tourism police with offices in the major tourist areas and its own central emergency telephone number.

Many tourists follow courses during their stay in Thailand. Popular are classes in Thai cooking, Buddhism and traditional Thai massage.

Many localities in Thailand also have their own festivals. Thai cuisine has become famous worldwide with its enthusiastic use of fresh herbs and spices.

Bangkok shopping malls offer a variety of international and local brands. Towards the north of the city, and easily reached by skytrain or underground , is the Chatuchak Weekend Market.

It is possibly the largest market in the world, selling everything from household items to live, and sometimes endangered, animals.

The night markets in the Silom area and on Khaosan Road are mainly tourist-oriented, selling items such as T-shirts, handicrafts, counterfeit watches and sunglasses.

In the vicinity of Bangkok one can find several floating markets such as the one in Damnoen Saduak. It attracts many locals as well as foreigners.

Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists. Thailand is at the forefront of the growing practice of sex-reassignment surgery SRS.

Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector.

Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet.

After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.

Thailand has an diverse and robust informal labor sector—in , it was estimated that informal workers comprised These reforms implemented an agenda of increased privatization and trade liberalization in the country, and decreased federal subsidization of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fair wages and labor conditions.

Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centers, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra support needed for survival—under the widespread regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made very little.

The weight of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor especially hard, and the informal sector expanded rapidly as a result.

Today, informal labor in Thailand is typically broken down into three main groups: Not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry.

Individuals employed in these facets of the informal labor sector face additional vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and human trafficking.

In general, education levels are low in the informal sector. Many informal workers are also migrants, only some of which have legal status in the country.

Education and citizenship are two main barriers to entry for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labor protections and social security benefits that come along with formal employment.

Because the informal labor sector is not recognized under the Labor Protection Act LPA , informal workers are much more vulnerable labor to exploitation and unsafe working conditions than those employed in more formal and federally recognized industries.

While some Thai labor laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agricultural workers, they are often weak and difficult to enforce. Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation as well as unemployment and retirement insurance.

Many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage. Thailand had a population of 68,, [8] as of [update].

In , an average of 5. At the time of the census, the average Thai household size was 3. Twenty million Central Thai together with approximately , Khorat Thai make up approximately 20,, In descending order, the largest equal to or greater than , are a 15,, Lao Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.

The official language of Thailand is Thai , a Tai—Kadai language closely related to Lao , Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border.

It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet , an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet.

For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist; these partly coincide with regional designations.

Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented. Hmong is a member of the Hmong—Mien languages , which is now regarded as a language family of its own.

English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world.

According to the census, Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.

According to the census, [7] 67,, Thailand residents belonged to the following religious groups:. According to the census, [7] 67,, Thailand residents by Region belonged to the following religious groups:.

Health and medical care is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health MOPH , along with several other non-ministerial government agencies, with total national expenditures on health amounting to 4.

Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues.

The current Minister for Public Health is Prof. Emeritus Piyasakol Sakolsatayadorn, M. Chan School of Public Health in Boston. In December the interim parliament voted to legalize the use of cannabis for medical reasons.

Recreational use remained unlawful. The National Legislative Assembly had votes in favor of the amendment to the Narcotics Bill, while there were no nay votes and 13 abstentions.

The vote makes Thailand the first Southeast Asian country to allow the use of medical marijuana. Thai culture has been shaped by many influences, including Indian, Lao, Burmese, Cambodian, and Chinese.

Its traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism , animism , as well as ancestor worship.

Thus the year is BE in Thailand. Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalised, populate Thailand. Some of these groups spill over into Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences.

Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power.

Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network , a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.

The traditional Thai greeting, the wai , is generally offered first by the younger of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch face to fingertips, usually coinciding with the spoken words "sawatdi khrap" for male speakers, and "sawatdi kha" for females.

The elder may then respond in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first.

For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first.

When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai their parents to indicate their respect. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India and Nepal.

As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy.

Seniority is paramount in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies.

Older siblings have duties to younger ones. Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: Common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, coriander , galangal , palm sugar, and fish sauce nam pla.

The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice also known as "hom Mali" rice which forms a part of almost every meal.

Thailand was long [ when? Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media.

There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor.

Many large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages. Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish.

Since then, another province, Bueng Kan, was incorporated, totalling twenty provinces. In addition, a military coup on 22 May led to severe state restrictions on all media and forms of expression.

Thailand generally uses the metric system , but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures.

Years are numbered as B. Buddhist Era in educational settings, civil service, government, contracts, and newspaper datelines.

However, in banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year Christian or Common Era counting is the standard practice.

It incorporates kicks, punches, knees and elbow strikes in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in boxing.

Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in and in The edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia , Malaysia and Vietnam.

It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying.

Volleyball is rapidly growing as one of the most popular sports. They have won the Asian Championship twice and Asian Cup once. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball.

It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia. A rather similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball.

Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the s.

Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia [] as it is a popular destination for golf.

The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year.

Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure.

The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.

Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 25, It was built for the Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy Monument in Bangkok.

Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65, It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok.

The stadium was built in for the Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team.

The well-known Lumpini Boxing Stadium will host its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 7 February after the venue first opened in December Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on 15 March Foreigners typically pay between 1,—2, baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating.

The Fisheries Department is promoting pla gud , or Siamese fighting fish, as the national fish. He said that once the status is recognised, fighting fish farming would be promoted which would generate money and create jobs.

He added that credible records show that pla gud of the Betta splendens species are native to Thailand and were first collected for fighting during the reign of King Rama III.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Siam disambiguation. Constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

Phleng Chat Thai English: Sansoen Phra Barami English: Isan Kam Mueang Pak Tai. Karen , Malay , Mon , Khmer , " Hill tribes " [3]: Prehistoric Thailand , Early history of Thailand , and Tai peoples.

Initial states of Thailand. Ayutthaya Kingdom and Thonburi Kingdom. History of Thailand — and History of Thailand since List of species native to Thailand.

Organization of the government of Thailand and Provinces of Thailand. Foreign relations of Thailand. Royal Thai Armed Forces. List of Thai inventions and discoveries.

This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.

Transport in Thailand and List of airports in Thailand. Ethnic groups in Thailand. List of cities in Thailand. Largest municipalities in Thailand See template.

Religion in Thailand [7] Religion Percent Buddhism. Music of Thailand , Isan , and Cinema of Thailand. Thai units of measurement.

International rankings of Thailand. Thailand portal Asia portal. Archived PDF from the original on 9 October Retrieved 8 October Archived PDF from the original on 10 December Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 10 September Population and housing census Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 29 April National Economic and Social Development Board.

Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 21 February Archived from the original on 4 December Retrieved 3 December Archived PDF from the original on 23 March Retrieved 22 March Thailand , 25 April Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 25 April See Gerini, Ptolemy, p.

So too in Central Asia Kustana appears to be a learned distortion of the name Khotan , made to give it a meaning in Sanskrit.

An Introduction to Thai Ethnonymy: Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. A History of Ayutthaya. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.

Journal of World Prehistory. Retrieved 10 February — via Researchgate. History Archived 2 April at the Wayback Machine.

New Haven and London: Jane Keyes, James A. Explicit use of et al. John Crawfurd sent to Siam by the Government of India in the year ". Retrieved 27 September Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 3 November Retrieved 11 March Archived from the original on 5 September Archived from the original on 16 October Archived from the original on 6 July Siam Intelligence in Thai.

Retrieved 23 August New era, new uncertainties ". Archived from the original on 13 October Release human rights defender imprisoned for insulting the monarchy".

Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 21 December Archived PDF from the original on 1 August Retrieved 18 August Biomes of the World.

Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 4 February Retrieved 17 December Thai Elephant Conservation Center.

Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 3 March Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 4 February Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 16 May Thai Society for the Conservation of Wild Animals.

Archived from the original on 26 November Archived from the original on 22 August Ciorciari 10 March Archived from the original on 26 April World Socialist Web Site.

Archived from the original on 19 June Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 15 December Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 3 May Singapore was third, Malaysia 28th, and Korea 46th: Archived from the original on 12 March Archived from the original on 26 February National News Bureau of Thailand".

Archived from the original on 8 July Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 30 January Bangkok Post 2 May Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 23 April Public Debt Management Office.

Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 25 January Thailand facing unemployment problem". Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 8 February The Wall Street Journal.

Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 17 June Retrieved 1 July Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index".

BBC Thailand in Thai. Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original on 3 January Railway Technology Development Institute of Thailand.

Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 14 November Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 24 August Thailand PDF ed. Archived PDF from the original on 19 March Retrieved 10 March Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 7 May Retrieved on 16 September Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 29 January Canadian Medical Association Journal.

Canadian Medical Association, 07 Jan.

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Visitor World Map Country of origin for Ratings of similarly popular websites. Baby animals are typically captured and sold, which often requires killing the mother.

Once in captivity and out of their natural habitat, many pets die or fail to reproduce. Affected populations include the Asiatic black bear , Malayan sun bear , white-handed lar , pileated gibbon and binturong.

There are also two specially-governed districts: Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a province. Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts tambons.

Thai provinces are administrated by regions. The regions that Thailand uses to divide the provinces is the four-region division system. It divides the country into the four regions: Each region has its own different historical background, culture, language and people.

In contrast to the administrative divisions of the Provinces of Thailand , Thailand is a Unitary state , the provincial Governors, district chiefs, and district clerks are appointed by the central government.

The regions themselves do not have an administrative character, but are used for geographical , statistical , geological , meteorological or touristic purposes.

Thailand controlled the Malay Peninsula as far south as Malacca in the 15th century and held much of the peninsula, including Temasek Singapore , some of the Andaman Islands , and a colony on Java , but eventually contracted when the British used force to guarantee their suzerainty over the sultanate.

Mostly the northern states of the Malay Sultanate presented annual gifts to the Thai king in the form of a golden flower —a gesture of tribute and an acknowledgement of vassalage.

Thailand relinquished sovereignty over what are now the northern Malay provinces of Kedah , Perlis , Kelantan , and Terengganu to the British.

Satun and Pattani Provinces were given to Thailand. Most victims since the uprisings have been Buddhist and Muslim bystanders. Thailand participates fully in international and regional organisations.

Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings.

Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.

In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort.

Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out.

Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.

More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship. Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a strong humanitarian contingent.

Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack. The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured.

Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Kong Thap Thai constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.

The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of , active duty personnel and another , active reserve personnel. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand , which is headed by the Minister of Defence a member of the cabinet of Thailand and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters , which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand.

According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. The candidates are subjected to varying lengths of training, from six months to two years of full-time service, depending on their education, whether they have partially completed the reserve training course, and whether they volunteered prior to the draft date usually 1 April every year.

A person who completed one year out of three will only have to serve full-time for one year. Those who completed two years of reserve training will only have to do six months of full-time training, while those who complete three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely.

Royal Thai Armed Forces Day is celebrated on 18 January, commemorating the victory of Naresuan of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in battle against the crown prince of the Toungoo dynasty in In the literacy rate was The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments.

Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology.

The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility.

Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since Most of the present generation of students are computer literate.

Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia. Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests.

Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72, Thai students from December to January The average IQ was found to be IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency and steps are being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt, a practice common in many Western countries.

In , the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27, schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet.

The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy.

It provides users with regularly scheduled light. In Bangkok, there are very many free public Wi-Fi Internet hotspots. The Internet is censored by the Thai government, making some sites unreachable.

Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.

Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia.

In the third quarter of , the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0. In increased pressure on the baht , a year in which the economy contracted by 1.

Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis.

The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from to The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January and the economy contracted by Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark.

Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence.

The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0. Following the Thai military coup of 22 May , the AFP global news agency published an article that claimed that the nation was on the verge of recession.

The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product GDP.

Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. As of [update] , the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia and the 9th largest in the world.

Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and South Korean.

Rail transport in Bangkok includes long-distance services, and some daily commuter trains running from and to the outskirts of the city during the rush hour, but passenger numbers have remained low.

There are also three rapid transit rail systems in the capital. As of , Thailand had airports with 63 paved runways, in addition to 6 heliports. As of [update] Thailand has 37 million registered vehicles, 20 million of them motorbikes.

A number of undivided two-lane highways have been converted into divided four-lane highways. Other forms of road transport includes tuk-tuks , taxis—as of November , Thailand has 80, registered taxis nationwide [] —vans minibus , motorbike taxis, and songthaews.

There are 4, public vans operating on routes from Bangkok to the provinces alone. They are classed as Category 2 public transport vehicles routes within kilometres.

Until , most operated from a Bangkok terminus at Victory Monument. Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia in , according to the World Tourism Organisation.

Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent 1 trillion baht to 16 percent. In , this was supplemented by a "Discover Thainess" campaign.

Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity.

Western tourists not only visit Bangkok and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands. The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains.

The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan in the northeast. To accommodate foreign visitors, the Thai government established a separate tourism police with offices in the major tourist areas and its own central emergency telephone number.

Many tourists follow courses during their stay in Thailand. Popular are classes in Thai cooking, Buddhism and traditional Thai massage.

Many localities in Thailand also have their own festivals. Thai cuisine has become famous worldwide with its enthusiastic use of fresh herbs and spices.

Bangkok shopping malls offer a variety of international and local brands. Towards the north of the city, and easily reached by skytrain or underground , is the Chatuchak Weekend Market.

It is possibly the largest market in the world, selling everything from household items to live, and sometimes endangered, animals. The night markets in the Silom area and on Khaosan Road are mainly tourist-oriented, selling items such as T-shirts, handicrafts, counterfeit watches and sunglasses.

In the vicinity of Bangkok one can find several floating markets such as the one in Damnoen Saduak. It attracts many locals as well as foreigners.

Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a de facto part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists.

Thailand is at the forefront of the growing practice of sex-reassignment surgery SRS. Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector.

Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet.

After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.

Thailand has an diverse and robust informal labor sector—in , it was estimated that informal workers comprised These reforms implemented an agenda of increased privatization and trade liberalization in the country, and decreased federal subsidization of public goods and utilities, agricultural price supports, and regulations on fair wages and labor conditions.

Those that could not find formal factory work, including illegal migrants and the families of rural Thai migrants that followed their relatives to the urban centers, turned to the informal sector to provide the extra support needed for survival—under the widespread regulation imposed by the structural adjustment programs, one family member working in a factory or sweatshop made very little.

The weight of these economic changes hit migrants and the urban poor especially hard, and the informal sector expanded rapidly as a result. Today, informal labor in Thailand is typically broken down into three main groups: Not included in these categories are those that work in entertainment, nightlife, and the sex industry.

Individuals employed in these facets of the informal labor sector face additional vulnerabilities, including recruitment into circles of sexual exploitation and human trafficking.

In general, education levels are low in the informal sector. Many informal workers are also migrants, only some of which have legal status in the country.

Education and citizenship are two main barriers to entry for those looking to work in formal industries, and enjoy the labor protections and social security benefits that come along with formal employment.

Because the informal labor sector is not recognized under the Labor Protection Act LPA , informal workers are much more vulnerable labor to exploitation and unsafe working conditions than those employed in more formal and federally recognized industries.

While some Thai labor laws provide minimal protections to domestic and agricultural workers, they are often weak and difficult to enforce.

Furthermore, Thai social security policies fail to protect against the risks many informal workers face, including workplace accidents and compensation as well as unemployment and retirement insurance.

Many informal workers are not legally contracted for their employment, and many do not make a living wage. Thailand had a population of 68,, [8] as of [update].

In , an average of 5. At the time of the census, the average Thai household size was 3. Twenty million Central Thai together with approximately , Khorat Thai make up approximately 20,, In descending order, the largest equal to or greater than , are a 15,, Lao Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.

The official language of Thailand is Thai , a Tai—Kadai language closely related to Lao , Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunnan south to the Chinese border.

It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet , an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet.

For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist; these partly coincide with regional designations.

Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang.

Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented. Hmong is a member of the Hmong—Mien languages , which is now regarded as a language family of its own.

English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world.

According to the census, Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.

According to the census, [7] 67,, Thailand residents belonged to the following religious groups:. According to the census, [7] 67,, Thailand residents by Region belonged to the following religious groups:.

Health and medical care is overseen by the Ministry of Public Health MOPH , along with several other non-ministerial government agencies, with total national expenditures on health amounting to 4.

Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues.

The current Minister for Public Health is Prof. Emeritus Piyasakol Sakolsatayadorn, M. Chan School of Public Health in Boston.

In December the interim parliament voted to legalize the use of cannabis for medical reasons. Recreational use remained unlawful. The National Legislative Assembly had votes in favor of the amendment to the Narcotics Bill, while there were no nay votes and 13 abstentions.

The vote makes Thailand the first Southeast Asian country to allow the use of medical marijuana. Thai culture has been shaped by many influences, including Indian, Lao, Burmese, Cambodian, and Chinese.

Its traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism , animism , as well as ancestor worship.

Thus the year is BE in Thailand. Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalised, populate Thailand. Some of these groups spill over into Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences.

Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power.

Thai Chinese businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network , a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.

The traditional Thai greeting, the wai , is generally offered first by the younger of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch face to fingertips, usually coinciding with the spoken words "sawatdi khrap" for male speakers, and "sawatdi kha" for females.

The elder may then respond in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first.

For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first.

When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai their parents to indicate their respect. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India and Nepal.

As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy.

Seniority is paramount in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Older siblings have duties to younger ones.

Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: Common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, coriander , galangal , palm sugar, and fish sauce nam pla.

The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice also known as "hom Mali" rice which forms a part of almost every meal.

Thailand was long [ when? Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media.

There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor.

Many large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages. Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish.

Since then, another province, Bueng Kan, was incorporated, totalling twenty provinces. In addition, a military coup on 22 May led to severe state restrictions on all media and forms of expression.

Thailand generally uses the metric system , but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures.

Years are numbered as B. Buddhist Era in educational settings, civil service, government, contracts, and newspaper datelines. However, in banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year Christian or Common Era counting is the standard practice.

No other institution resonates with the public as much or enjoys a similar level of acceptance amongst sponsors. Sold out stadiums for home games are the norm, excited fans creating a see of black, red and gold flags are a familiar sight.

Even at home or at public viewings, the amount of support is huge. The national team has managed to exude excellence and reliability for decades and continues to produce big personalities as role models.

World Cup winners on four occasions, runners-up four times, four third-place finishes, three-time European Championship winners and also runners-up in that competition on three occasions.

Germany have taken part at every World Cup since and at every European Championship since and have reached 13 finals at these major tournaments.

That gold medal came under coach Georg Buschner, who also led the East Germany national team to their only participation at the finals of a World Cup in , where they secured a memorable win over the Federal Republic of Germany in Hamburg.

There was no coach in these early years, which lacked sporting success; only two of the first ten international fixtures ended in victory.

It took 14 attempts, until , before the national team could end a calendar year with a positive record. Germany beat Austria, with matches against Switzerland and Hungary ending in draws.

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